The history in this chapter derives from a wide range of sources detailed in the bibliography but an invaluable source is: Hafner, Katie and Matthew Lyon. Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet. Simon & Shuster, New York. 1996 along with Rheingold, Howard. Tools for Thought--The People and Ideas Behind the Next Computer Revolution. Simon & Shuster. New York. 1985. Other sources used include: Levy, Steven. Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. Anchor Press. Garden City, New York. 1984; Vinton G. Cerf. "Computer Networking: Global Infrastructure for the 21st Century." Copyright 1995 by Vinton G. Cerf and the Computing Research Association. On the Internet at http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/lazowska/cra/networks.html. Hardy, Henry Edward. The History of the Net. Master's Thesis. School of Communications, Grand Valley State University. September 28, 1993; Zakon, Robert Hobbes'. "Hobbes' Internet Timeline v2.5. http://info.isoc.org/guest/zakon/Internet/History/HIT.html. 1993-6
Saffo, Paul. "Racing change on a merry-go-round: MIT Management in the Nineties" program reports industry overall is not more productive because of computing technology." Personal Computing v14, n5 (May 25, 1990):67. Saffo details the revolutionary vision of Engelbart and how little modern business has engaged with the full thrust of Engelbart's vision.
The term "hacker" was originally a descriptive term which implied a shared belief that technical information should, in principle, be freely available to all users. While some individuals who promoted this perspective are still actively involved in Internet development, the term has a different meaning to the current generation of Internet users.
Baker, Steven. "The evolving Internet backbone--history of the Internet computer network." UNIX Review v11, n9 (Sept, 1993):15.
Rheingold, 1985, p. 199.
There is a more extensive history of this evolution of professional governance of the Internet in: Kahn, Robert E. "The role of government in the evolution of the Internet." Communications of the ACM v37, n8 (Aug 1994):15-19.
Michalski, Jerry. "O pioneers!". RELease 1.0 v94, n1 (Jan 31, 1994):5 (8 pages).
Stevens, Tim. "NCSA: National Center for Supercomputing Applications." Industry Week v243, n23 (Dec 19, 1994):56-58 and Patch, Kimberly. "Spyglass takes on Mosaic licensing: will focus on support and security." PC Week v11, n34 (August 29, 1994):123.
Accounts of Netscape's startup from: Holzinger, Albert G. "Netscape founder points, and it clicks." Nation's Business v84, n1 (Jan 1996):32; Nee, Eric."Jim Clark." Upside v7, n10 (Oct 1995):28-48.
Nee, Oct 1995.
Steinert-Threlkeld, Tom. "The Internet shouldn't be a breeding ground for monopolies--Mosaic Communications' NetScape giveaway could be prelude to market dominance." InterActive Week v1, n2 (Nov 7, 1994):44.
"University of Illinois and Netscape Communications reach agreement." Information Today v12, n3 (Mar 1995):39.
Nee, ibid. 1995
Lohr, Steve. "Spyglass, a Pioneer, Learns Hard Lessons About Microsoft" New York Times. March 2. 1998.
Messmer, Ellen. "Spyglass captures Mosaic licensing." Network World v11, n35 (Aug 29, 1994):4.
See Hellerstein, Judith. "The NTIA needs to rethink its role in the new telecommunications environment." Telecommunications (Americas Edition) v30, n8 (Aug 1996):22 for the trials of the NTIA agency in the Clinton administration.
McGarvey, Joe. "Intranets, NT Shape Server Market." SoftBase. Jun 1, 1997.
Kornblum, Janet. "Netscape sets source code free." News.Com. March 31, 1998.
Moeller, Michael. "Fort Apache: freeware's spirit outshines commercial products." PC Week v14, n23. June 9, 1997.
Glyn Moody. "The Greatest OS That (N)ever Was." Wired. August 1997.
Sullivan, Eamonn "Freedom is priceless, even when it's free." PC Week v13, n47. Nov 25, 1996.
Saletan, Wiliam "Microsoft plays dead." Slate January 29, 1999.