Will Technology Trickle Down to Rural America?

A NetAction Report


  1. "Falling Through the Net: Toward Digital Inclusion;" National Telecommunications and Information Administration, Economics and Statistics Administration and U.S. Department of Commerce; October 2000.

  2. "Falling Through the Net: Defining the Digital Divide;" National Telecommunications and Information Administration and U.S. Department of Commerce; August 2000.

  3. NTIA et al. page xvi, October 2000.

  4. Ibid. page xviii. The term "broadband" is used in this study to include the two most common technologies, Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) and cable modems, and Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).

  5. "Disconnected, Disadvantaged and Disenfranchised," Consumer Federation of America and Consumers Union. Washington DC, October 2000.

  6. Pew Research Center; Who's Not Online: 57% of Those Without Internet Access Say They Do Not Plan to Log On, Pew Internet and American Life Project (http://www.pewinternet.org/); September 2000.

  7. Garcia, Linda. "Network Architecture and Place-Space Relationships: The Impact of Networking Technologies on the Geographic Distribution of Economic Activities;" Working Paper. November 1999.

  8. Rogers, Everett. Communication Technology: The New Media in Society, New York, NY: The Free Press, 1986.

  9. Boyer, Kenneth. "Network Externalities," Networks, Infrastructure and the New Task for Regulation, Ed. Werner Sichel and Donald L. Alexander; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1996.

  10. Weise, Elizabeth; "Hedy Lamarr-Inventor, A sultry screen star who didn't just act -- she invented;" Associated Press.

  11. Beyer, David A.; Mark D. Vestrich, J.J. Garcia Luna Aceves; "The Rooftop Community Network: Free, High-Speed Network Access for Communities;" The First 100 Feet: Options for Internet and Broadband Access. Ed. Deborah Hurley and James H. Keller. MIT Press: Cambridge. 1999.

  12. Beyer et al, 1999.

  13. Hughes, David R.; "The Local Wireless Option;" The First 100 Feet: Options for Internet and Broadband Access. Ed. Deborah Hurley and James H. Keller. MIT Press: Cambridge. 1999.

  14. For more information on NSF Wireless Field Tests see http://wireless.oldcolo.com/.

  15. From the report prepared by David Hughes, Principal Investigator, made to the National Science Foundation (http://wireless.oldcolo.com/course/montev.txt). January 1996.

  16. United States Department of Commerce, National Telecommunications and Information Administration, United States Department of Agriculture, Rural Development, Rural Utilities Service; Advanced Telecommunications in Rural America: The Challenge of Bringing Broadband Service to All Americans; April 2000.

  17. See http://www.sprintbroadband.com/prsite/articles/MMDS.html (NOTE: this link is no longer valid as of 05/23/2001).

  18. Cairncross, F. (1997). The Death of Distance: How Communication Revolution Will Change Our Lives. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

  19. Jones, Jennifer and Cathleen Moore; "Finkelstein added Satellite technology starts to enter IT's orbit;" InfoWorld; vol 22, Issue: 16; page 20; Framingham. April 17, 2000.

  20. See http://www.bhartibt.com/tutorial/whatvsat.html.

  21. National Cable Television Association; The History of Cable Television; (http://ncta.cyberserv.com/qs/user_pages/CableIndustryAtAGlance.cfm).

  22. United States Department of Commerce et al.; April 2000.

  23. Selwynn, Lee; Bringing Broadband to Rural America: Investment and Innovation in the Wake of the Telecom Act; Economics and Technology Inc: Boston, MA; December 1999.

  24. Ibid.

  25. For more information, see http://www.intertech.net.

  26. See http://www.whatis.com for more information on set-top boxes.

  27. See Michigan Telecommunications Act of 2000 Sec 202 (g).

  28. Stanford, Cheraine; "School Project Connects Families with Inter;" San Jose Mercury News; 06/07/2000.

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