1 Telecommunications Act of 1996. Pub. LA. No. 104-104, 110 Stat. 56. 1996. Codified at 47 U.S.C. §§ 151 et seq., West Supp. 1997. 11 Mar 2002 http://www.fcc.gov/telecom.html. This act also addressed other areas including deregulating cable TV networks, but we are concerned here with its impact on the telephone networks.
2 List from Eileen deArmon, Director of Marketing, World Wide Packets, American Public Power Association, provided to David Isenberg's SMART Letter. Online newsletter. No. 68. March 17, 2002. 17 March 2002 http://isen.com/archives/020317.html.
3 Dark fiber is defined in The Telecosm Glossary: An Opinionated Lexicon, 2nd Edition, Gilder Technology Group, Inc. 1999, as: 1) Fiber optic cable that has been installed, but is not presently connected to opto-electronic equipment. 2) Fiber that has been installed without opto-electronic equipment by one company, but is later fitted with the equipment by a second party that leases the fiber from the installing company. 6 Mar 2002 http://www.passig.com/pic/Telecosm%20Glossary.pdf.
4 Updates on telecommunications-related legislative activity is tracked on the Washington Internet Project's website.
5 More detailed information on how politics is funded by industry contributions is found on the Center for Responsive Politics' opensecrets.org website, in their Communications/Electronics sector. http://www.opensecrets.org/industries/background.asp?ind=B.
6 Behr, Ira Stephen, and Kevin Ryan. The Ferengi Rules of Acquisition. New York: Pocket Books, 1995. 66.
7 Leiner, Barry M., Cerf, Vinton G., Clark, David D., Kahn, Robert E., Kleinrock, Leonard, Lynch, Daniel C., Postel, Jon, Roberts, Larry G., Wolff, Stephen. "A Brief History of the Internet." 27 January 2002 http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/brief.shtml.
8 Dumb network, defined. 14 March 2002 http://www.commweb.com/encyclopedia/search?term=dumbnetwork. The term "dumb network" was first coined by George Gilder, and "stupid network" by David Isenberg.
9 Contrast the open architecture of the Internet with the voice-specific nature of the telephone network.
10 United States v Associated Press. 326 US 1, 20. 1945.
11 "Projects - Reinventing the Public Domain: Making Intellectual Property Law Serve Democracy, Science and Culture." Public Knowledge website. 25 April 2002 http://www.publicknowledge.org/projects/reinventing.html.
12 Benkler, Yochai. "From Consumers to Users: Shifting the Deeper Structures of Regulation Toward Sustainable Commons and User Access." Federal Communications Law Journal. Vol 52, No 3, p 564. 17 Mar 2002 http://www.law.indiana.edu/fclj/pubs/v52/no3/benkler1.pdf.
13 "Trends in Telephone Service." FCC, Industry Analysis Division, Common Carrier Bureau. August 2001. 24 March 2002 http://www.fcc.gov/Bureaus/Common_Carrier/Reports/FCC-State_Link/IAD/trend801.pdf.
14 Googin, Roxane. "How Networking Advances Screwed Up the Economy." Online newsletter. David S. Isenberg's SMART Letter, No. 64, Dec 16, 2001. 11 March 2002 http://www.isen.com/archives/011216.html.
15 Mehta, Stephanie N. "Why Telecom Crashed." Fortune. November 27, 2000. 29 March 2002 http://www.fortune.com/indext.jhtml?channel=print_article.jhtml&doc_id=00000185.
16 SBC Investor Briefings. 3rd Quarter, 2001. 12 March 2002 http://www.sbc.com/Investor/Financial/Earning_Info/docs/3Q01_IB_FINAL.pdf.
17 SBC Investor Briefings. 4th Quarter, 2001. 12 March 2002 http://www.sbc.com/Investor/Financial/Earning_Info/docs/4Q_IB_FINAL_COLOR.pdf.
18 BellSouth Financials. 4th Quarter, 2001. 15 March 2002 http://www.bellsouth.com/investor/pdf/4q01p.pdf.
19 BellSouth Financials. 4th Quarter, 2001.
20 Verizon's Investor area. Company web site. 15 March
21 "Qwest Communications Reports Fourth Quarter, Year-End 2001 Results." Qwest press release. Jan 29, 2002. 15 March 2002 http://media.corporate-ir.net/media_files/NYS/Q/q_1_28_02earnrel.htm.
22 "Qwest's Loss Widens Amid Huge Merger-Related Charges; Results Match Expectations." Dow Jones Business News. July 24, 2001. 15 March 2002 http://www.cfo.com/Article?article=4306.
23 Barboza, David and Feder, Barnaby J. "Enron's Swap With Qwest Is Questioned." New York Times. Mar. 29, 2002. 29 March 2002 http://www.nytimes.com/2002/03/29/business/29SWAP.html.
24 Colvin, Geoffrey. "The Great CEO Pay Heist: Tables." Fortune. June 25, 2001. 29 Mar 2002 http://www.fortune.com/indext.jhtml?channel=print_article.jhtml&doc_id=202915.
25 Insider & Form 144 Filings - NACCHIO, JOSEPH P. From Yahoo Finance web site. 25 April 200 http://biz.yahoo.com/t/08/846.html.
26 Qwest 10K for 2001. 2 April 2002 http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1037949/000103570402000198/0001035704-02-000198-index.htm.
27 Mehta, Stephanie N. "Why Telecom Crashed."
28 Googin, Roxane. April 10 panel discussion. Pulver's Voice on the Net Conference. Seattle WA, April 8-11, 2002.
29 Lewis, Mark. "The Dominoes Keep Falling in Telecom." Forbes. Apr. 2, 2002. 3 April 2002 http://www.forbes.com/2002/04/02/0402metromedia_print.html.
About the Author
Judi Clark is currently a law student and President of ManyMedia, a Graphics Communication and Information Services Consultancy. She is also the force behind WomensWork.org, and a member of the NetAction Advisory Board. She has been an instructor in the University of California, Santa Cruz's corporate training department, past treasurer and member of the Board of Directors of Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR), and served on the Steering Committee for several annual Computers, Freedom, and Privacy (CPF) conferences. She has been involved with many professional and businesswomen's conferences and web sites, and is creator of the Role Model Project for Girls.
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